shutterstock_403780030There is exclusionary language in all insurance policies (as you know) that can operate to bar coverage.  In a recent case example, a company performed maintenance and construction services and had a company automobile liability insurance policy.  The policy, however, excluded from coverage automobiles where there was OTHER INSURANCE available that afforded SIMILAR COVERAGE.  One of the company’s members got into an automobile accident with his personal vehicle which resulted in the company being sued in a personal injury action.  The member had a personal automobile liability insurance policy that insured the vehicle.  The company’s policy had significantly higher limits of insurance than the member’s policy.  


Unfortunately, the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals held the company’s insurer was NOT required to defend or indemnify the insured-company in the personal injury action because of the exclusionary language in the company’s policy.  In particular, the company’s policy did not apply because the member’s personal automobile liability insurance policy (other insurance) insured the same risk (afforded similar coverage); it did not matter that the limits of liability in the policies were different.  (For more information on this case, click here.)  


This case, although dealing with an automobile liability insurance policy, discusses exclusionary language in a policy that deals with other insurance available that provides the same or similar coverage (again, in this case the personal automobile liability insurance policy that covered the member’s vehicle applied which barred coverage under the company’s policy).


Please contact David Adelstein at or (954) 361-4720 if you have questions or would like more information regarding this article. You can follow David Adelstein on Twitter @DavidAdelstein1.


imagesAs an insured, know YOUR rights under Florida’s Claims Administration Act (Florida Statute s. 627.426).  I wrote an article on this exact topic.  If a third-party claim is asserted, or in the process of being asserted, against you, do yourself a favor and consult a lawyer that can assist you with preserving your insurance coverage rights.  You pay liability insurance premiums for a reason so make sure you are not doing anything that could jeopardize rights under applicable insurance policies.


A liability insurer must comply with the Claims Administration Act if it wants to deny coverage based on a coverage defense (e.g., the insured’s failure to cooperate with the insurer).   


Once your liability insurer issues you a written reservation of rights letter (“[w]ithin 30 days after it knew or should have known of the coverage defense”), and it will typically issue this written letter, it has three options according to the Claims Administration Act:


1)   It can refuse to defend you (i.e., deny coverage);

2)   It can obtain a non-waiver agreement from you; OR

3)   It can retain, independent mutually agreeable counsel to represent you.


Again, an insurer’s failure to comply with the Claims Administration will preclude it from raising a coverage defense to later deny coverage.  See Geico General Ins. Co. v. Mukamal, 42 Fla.L.Weekly D1833a (Fla. 3d DCA 2017) (discussed here, and explaining that an insurer has only three options per the Claims Administration Act and it must select an option even if the insured’s conduct prevented the insurer from selecting one of the options).


Please contact David Adelstein at or (954) 361-4720 if you have questions or would like more information regarding this article. You can follow David Adelstein on Twitter @DavidAdelstein1.


shutterstock_585394823In insurance coverage declaratory relief actions, there are times an insured will argue that the insurance policy coverage is illusory.  Typically, an insured will raise this illusory argument if its insurer is denying coverage based on an exclusion or limitation in the policy.  If a court agrees and deems the coverage illusory, the court will construe the policy to afford coverage to the insured.  This is the obvious value of the argument: coverage!


A policy is illusory only if there is an internal contradiction that completely negates the coverage it expresses to provide.”  The Warwick Corp. v. Turetsky, 42 Fla.L.Weekly D1797a (Fla. 4th DCA 2017).    Thus, if a policy grants coverage in one section but then excludes the same coverage in another section, the coverage would be deemed illusory.  Id. quoting Tire Kingdom, Inc. v. First S. Ins. Co., 573 So.2d 885, 887 (Fla. 3d DCA 1990).  An illusory policy was found in the following examples: (a) a policy covered certain intentional torts but then excluded intended acts; (b) a policy covered advertising injury but elsewhere excluded advertising injury; and (c) a policy covered parasailing but excluded watercrafts.  Id. (citations omitted). In all examples, coverage in the policy was completely swallowed up by an exclusion rendering the coverage illusory.  Stated differently, coverage was completely contradicted by an exclusion in the policy rendering the policy absurd.


However, if an exclusion or limitation in the policy does not entirely swallow up the coverage, the policy is not illusory.  The Warwick Corp., supra.  For example, if a policy covers advertising injury but excludes advertising injury caused by a violation of law, the coverage is not illusory.   The exclusion does not completely swallow up the coverage as it only excludes advertising injury cased by a violation of law.  Id. (citation omitted). 


In The Warwick Corp., the insured argued that the excess commercial property insurance policy that covered four hotels was illusory because its coverage was limited to the value of the hotel, which equaled the amount payable under the primary property insurance policy.  Although the court acknowledged that it would be very rare that the excess policy would ever be triggered for one of the hotels, it held that the policy was not illusory because the limitation did not completely swallow up the coverage (as there was an unlikely circumstance that could trigger coverage for the hotel).  Additionally, the court noted that the insured was a sophisticated entity that paid a minimum premium for minimum coverage under the excess policy for the hotel, meaning it elected to buy the policy and coverage it bought which is a choice it cannot change after-the-fact.


As you know from reading my prior posts, insurance coverage is important so make sure you know what risks are covered and what risks are not for your business interests.


Please contact David Adelstein at or (954) 361-4720 if you have questions or would like more information regarding this article. You can follow David Adelstein on Twitter @DavidAdelstein1.





shutterstock_513564982The good ole duty to defend. Certainly, a duty that should not be overlooked.


A commercial general liability insurer has two duties to its insured when it comes to third-party claims: 1) the duty to defend its insured and 2) the duty to indemnify its insured.


The insurer’s duty to defend its insured will always be broader than its duty to indemnify because this duty is triggered by the allegations in the lawsuit.  (For this precise reason, insurers will oftentimes defend their insured under a reservation of rights.)  The duty to defend is a very important duty as it is the first duty that typically comes into play when a third-party claim / action is initiated against the insured.  Getting the insurer on board to provide a defense is an initial focus. One that cannot be neglected or overlooked.


If an insurer denies or refuses to defend its insured, this means the insurer is denying coverage outright.  In other words, the insurer is coming out of the gate denying the duty to indemnify the insured and, as such, denying the duty to defend.  There is no reservation of rights because the insurer is not going to provide a defense based on its denial of coverage.  When this happens, it is imperative that the insured consult with counsel.  Not later or tomorrow or down the road.   But, now!  Immediately.  At a minimum, an insured wants to ensure that its insurer is picking-up the broader duty to defend and needs to make sure its rights are protected and preserved.


In Mid-Continent Casualty Company v. Flora-Tech PlantScapes, Inc., 42 Fla. L. Weekly D1649a (Fla. 3d DCA 2017), a general contractor initiated a third-party claim against a landscaper in a personal injury action.  (It is uncertain whether the landscaper was hired by the general contractor or the developer.)  The  landscaper’s commercial general liability insurer denied coverage and, therefore, refused to defend the insured in the lawsuit. As a result, the landscaper initiated a fourth-party claim against its own insurer for coverage seeking a declaration that its insurer had a duty to defend it in the lawsuit and indemnify it for the third-party claims being asserted against it.   Both the landscaper and its insurer filed motions for summary judgment and the trial court declared that the insurer had a duty to defend its insured, but that it was not making a determination as to the insurer’s duty to indemnify.  From the insured-landscaper’s standpoint, this likely was fine because the landscaper was initially looking for a declaration that its insurer had a duty to provide it a defense in the personal injury action.



Please contact David Adelstein at or (954) 361-4720 if you have questions or would like more information regarding this article. You can follow David Adelstein on Twitter @DavidAdelstein1.