imagesWith regard to claims for professional negligence, the Florida Supreme Court has explained that ‘where the negligent party is a professional, the law imposes a duty to perform the requested services in accordance with the standard of care used by similar professionals in the community under similar circumstances.’” Sunset Beach Investments, LLC v. Kimley-Horn and Associates, 42 Fla. L. Weekly D130a (Fla. 4th DCA 2017) quoting Moransais v. Heathman, 744 So.2d 973, 975-76 (Fla. 1999).


When it comes to professional negligence, two things are important:


1)  the person being sued is a professional under the law (person has special education, training, experience, and skill) and

2)   the standard of care for that professional (e.g, licensed, professional engineer).


In a recent case, an engineering intern—not, a licensed, professional engineer–was sued for professional negligence.   The Fourth District Court of Appeal held that an engineering intern is not a person that can be sued for professional negligence, unlike a licensed, professional engineer. Sunset Beach Investments, supra.


The Fourth District explained that an engineering intern, by way of example, is not a professional because an engineering intern does not maintain a license.  If the court treated an engineering intern as a professional than it would be walking down a slippery slope when it came to who is a professional and who is not.   Instead of walking down that slippery slope, the court stated: “At a minimum, in a profession where a license exists, the existence of a license is a valid barometer for determining whether a person is classified as a professional. “ Sunset Beach Investments, supra.


Please contact David Adelstein at or (954) 361-4720 if you have questions or would like more information regarding this article. You can follow David Adelstein on Twitter @DavidAdelstein1.







imagesA design professional or architectural firm has an uphill battle proving a copyright infringement claim.   Why? Because it is hard…very hard…for a design firm to show that another’s design is substantially similar to their original copyrighted design to warrant a finding of copyright infringement.


This uphill burden has been reaffirmed by the Northern District of Florida in Home Design Services, Inc. v. Turner Heritage Homes, Inc., 2015 WL 1482301 (N.D.Fla. 2015).  In this case, a residential design was copyrighted. The design firm that owned the copyright for the residential design sued a homebuilder for copyright infringement alleging that the homebuilder built 165 custom homes based on the design firm’s copyrighted design.  The jury returned a jury verdict in favor of the design firm for copyright infringement; however, the trial court entered judgment for the homebuilder finding that the design firm failed to prove a copyright infringement claim.  That’s right—the jury returned a verdict finding copyright infringement and the trial court entered a judgment for the homebuilder notwithstanding the verdict.


A leading issue in this case was whether the design firm’s copyrighted design was an original design and whether there were differences between the copyrighted design and the homebuilder’s allegedly infringing design.  The reason being is that in order to prove a copyright infringement claim of an architectural design:


For copyright infringement, a plaintiff must prove: (1) ownership of a valid copyright, and (2) copying of protectable elements. In order to establish ownership of a valid copyright, the plaintiff must prove, among other things, that the work is original.  Original, as the term is used in copyright, means only that the work was independently created by the author (as opposed to copied from other works), and that it possesses at least some minimal degree of creativity. To establish copying, the plaintiff must show as a factual matter that the defendant copied the protected work, and, as a mixed question of law and fact, that the protected expression itself was copied. In the absence of direct proof of copying, a plaintiff may prove copying by demonstrating that the defendants had access to the copyrighted work and that the works are substantially similar. To show access, the plaintiff need not prove actual viewing and knowledge but simply a reasonable opportunity to view the work.  The test for substantial similarity for architectural works is whether a reasonable jury could find the competing designs substantially similar at the level of protected expression. [S]pacial depictions of rooms, doors, windows, walls, etc. are not protected. [O]nly the original, and thus protected arrangement and coordination of spaces, elements and other staple building components should be compared. Moreover, given the subtle distinction between protected and unprotected expression, the Eleventh Circuit has recognized that judges, rather than juries, are usually better equipped to resolve questions of infringement. The Eleventh Circuit has further instructed that copyright protection in a compilation is thin, and that modest dissimilarities are more significant than they may be in other types of art works.

Home Design Services, supra, at *6.


Focusing on whether the design firm’s copyrighted design was substantially similar to the homebuilder’s home design, the trial court found dissimilarities between the designs including, but not limited to, the porches were different, fireplaces were in different locations, elevations were different, hallways had different dimensions and openings, toilets were positioned differently, the nooks had different windows, master bathrooms contained differences, etc. (you get the point…there were differences).  Although the design differences were slight when comparing architectural designs, the fact remained that there were dissimilarities to preclude a copyright infringement claim.  No matter how modest the dissimilarities truly were, that fact that there were dissimilarities precluded a finding for copyright infringement.


Please contact David Adelstein at or (954) 361-4720 if you have questions or would like more information regarding this article. You can follow David Adelstein on Twitter @DavidAdelstein1.



images-1Design professionals need to remember the benefit of newly enacted legislation effective July 2013 that authorizes a limitation of liability provision for design professionals in their individual capacity. Florida Statute s. 558.0035 authorizes a design professional to limit their personal liability if: (a) the professional’s company entered into the contract for professional services; (b) the contract does not name the professional as a party to the contract; (c) the contract provides in uppercase and at least 5 font points larger than the rest of the contract that an employee or agent of the professional’s company cannot be held individually liable in negligence, and (d) the professional’s company maintains professional liability insurance. See Fla. Stat. s. 558.0035 set forth below. Complying with this statute can limit a professional’s liability in an individual capacity for economic damages, although based on the language of the statute, it would not extend to personal injury or property damage not subject to the professional services contract.


When negotiating a contract for a design professional, it is good to include a limitation of liability provision to protect professionals working with the design professional company/ entity entering into the contract. I would include a provision identifying that it is specifically understood that employees or agents of the contracting party are not parties to the professional services contract. The reason being is many times professional services contracts will call out the specific professional(s) that is to act as the company’s representative or the professionals that will be performing the professional services. Additionally, I would include in uppercase and 5 font sizes larger than the balance of the text in the contract a provision to the effect: “PURSUANT TO FLORIDA STATUTE S. 558.0035, AN INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEE OR AGENT OF_______ [CONTRACTING PARTY] MAY NOT BE HELD INDIVIDUALLY LIABLE IN NEGLIGENCE FOR ANY CLAIMS, DAMAGES, OR DISPUTES ARISING OUT OF AND SUBJECT TO THE CONTRACT.”


Although the statute provides that the limitation of liability provision does not apply to damages to personal injuries or property not subject to the contract, it does not define the circumstances in which this would apply. For instance, if a structure is deficiently engineered and a portion falls down or collapses and damages persons or property other than the structure itself, it would seem that the limitation of liability provision would not extend to these types of damages since the other property and personal injuries were not subject to the professional services contract. On the other hand, there could be the argument that these damages are subject to the professional services contract because they arose out of errors and omissions in the performance of professional service contractual obligations.


When negotiating a contract for an owner, the key is to ensure that the design professional has sufficient professional liability insurance based on the requirements of the project (i.e., sufficient insurance limits and potentially tail / extended reporting period coverage). An owner willing to agree to the limitation of liability provision could put a disclaimer that reflects that should the contracting party not continue its professional liability insurance for “x” years after the project’s completion with a date retroactive to the contract date or purchase tail coverage for the same period of time, the limitation of liability provision shall be deemed null and void.


Florida Statute s. 558.0035

(1) A design professional employed by a business entity or an agent of the business entity is not individually liable for damages resulting from negligence occurring within the course and scope of a professional services contract if:
(a) The contract is made between the business entity and a claimant or with another entity for the provision of professional services to the claimant;
(b) The contract does not name as a party to the contract the individual employee or agent who will perform the professional services;
(c) The contract includes a prominent statement, in uppercase font that is at least 5 point sizes larger than the rest of the text, that, pursuant to this section, an individual employee or agent may not be held individually liable for negligence;
(d) The business entity maintains any professional liability insurance required under the contract; and
(e) Any damages are solely economic in nature and the damages do not extend to personal injuries or property not subject to the contract.
(2) As used in this section, the term “business entity” means any corporation, limited liability company, partnership, limited partnership, proprietorship, firm, enterprise, franchise, association, self-employed individual, or trust, whether fictitiously named or not, doing business in this state.


Please contact David Adelstein at or (954) 361-4720 if you have questions or would like more information regarding this article. You can follow David Adelstein on Twitter @DavidAdelstein1.


HIGHWAY-CONSTRUCTION-1The recent Florida district court case, Posen Construction, Inc. v. Lee County, et al., 2013 WL 375430 (M.D.Fla. 2013), ruling on various motions to dismiss, is an interesting case that discusses two important doctrines. In this case, a roadway contractor constructing a road project for Lee County sued Lee County and Lee County’s design professionals (hired by the County) for delays and additional costs it incurred in the performance of its work. This case, among other things, discusses a state’s (inclusive of a state agency or subdivision) sovereign immunity for claims for additional work (absent a change order) and the duty of care for purposes of a negligence claim that a design professional owes to a general contractor (when the general contractor did not hire the design professional).


The first doctrine is known as the Miorelli doctrine which refers to a state’s (or its agencies or subdivisions) soverign immunity for extra-contractual work claims that arise on a construction project. The Miorelli doctrine is based on the Florida Supreme Court case, County of Brevard v. Miorelli Engineering, Inc., 703 So.2d 1049 (1998). The Miorelli doctrine, as maintained by the Posen court, has evolved into the following doctrine: “A claim for damages predicated on work ‘totally outside the terms of the contract’ is barred by the doctrine of sovereign immunity [unless memorialized in a written executed change order], whereas damages caused by extra work done at the state’s behest and in furtherance of contractual covenants (express or implied) are potentially recoverable.” Posen Construction, supra at *3 citing Miorelli, 703 So.2d at 1051. In applying the Miorelli doctrine, the Posen court expressed:


“To be clear, if Posen’s [contractor] claim is predicated on work ‘totally outside the terms of the contract’ it will fail by application of the Miorelli decision. On the other hand, claims for damages caused by additional work performed in furtherance of either express or implied covenants of the written contract  fall within Florida’s implied waiver of sovereign immunity…”


If a contractor is suing a state (or a state agency or subdivision) for additional costs that are not memorialized in a written executed change order, it is important that the contractor is aware of the Miorelli doctrine in order to best craft arguments to potentially recover the additional costs. The reason being is that the contractor can almost be certain that the state will raise the Miorelli doctrine through the motion to dismiss and/or summary judgment stages to establish that the state has sovereign immunity for such claims and damages. The key is that the argument should center on the additional costs being covered by the expansive scope of work set forth in the contractor’s contract with the state versus constituting work that is materially different than what the contractor bargained for.


The second doctrine is known as the A.R. Moyer doctrine which refers to a design professional’s duty of care to a general contractor on a construction project (when there is no contractual privity between the contractor and design professional). The A.R. Moyer doctrine is based on the Florida Supreme Court case, A.R. Moyer v. Graham, 285 So.2d 397 (Fla. 1973). In A.R. Moyer, a contractor sued a supervising architect in negligence. The Florida Supreme Court in A.R. Moyer maintained:


Each of the [following] conditions would present a cause of action [in negligence against a supervising architect or engineer]: (a) supervising architect or engineer is negligent is preparation of plans and specifications; (b) the supervising architect or engineer negligently causes delays in preparation of corrected plans and specifications; (c) the supervising architect or engineer negligently prepared and negligently supervised corrected plans and specifications; (d) the supervising architect or engineer failed to award an architect’s certificate of completion of the project; (e) the architect or engineer was negligent in exercise of supervision and control of contractor…” Posen Construction, supra, citing A.R. Moyer, 285 So.2d at 402.


Stated differently, the design professional must have a supervisory role or element of control (also referred to as a close nexus to the contractor) in order for the design professional to owe a legal duty to the contractor. The Posen court clarified that “supervising architects and engineers are liable for the foreseeable injuries to general contractors proximately caused by their negligent conduct even where there is an absence of contractual privity, whereas nonsupervising engineers and architects—irrespective of when they are hired—will not be.” Posen Construction, supra, at *12.


If a contractor is suing a design professional in negligence, it is important for the contractor to understand the A.R. Moyer doctrine and that the required legal element of “duty” is based on the supervisory status of the architect or engineer. This will allow the contractor to best phrase legal theories knowing that the design professional will raise this doctrine at the motion to dismiss and/or motion for summary judgment stages. However, absent this supervisory status or close nexus between the design professional and general contractor, the design professional will not be deemed to owe a legal duty to the contractor.


Please contact David Adelstein at or (954) 361-4720 if you have questions or would like more information regarding this article. You can follow David Adelstein on Twitter @DavidAdelstein1.