shutterstock_392537986The “failure to cooperate” defense is a defense an insurer may raise when its insured fails to cooperate with it in the defense of the claim against the insured.  If an insurer takes this position, it will typically be denying both defense and indemnification obligations, meaning the insured could be forfeiting coverage that otherwise exists through his/her/its failure to cooperate with the insurer.  This defense by the insurer is not absolute as recently explained by the Fourth District in Barthelemy v. Safeco Ins. Co. of Illinois, 43 Fla.L.Weekly D2379a (Fla. 4th DCA 2018) discussing the elements of this failure to cooperate defense.


In this case, dealing with an automobile accident, the insurer denied both defense and indemnification obligations to its insured under the failure to cooperate defense.  The insurer argued its insured failed to cooperate by failing to submit three times to an Examination Under Oath (known as an “EUO”).  As a result, the insurer did not provide its insured a defense in the underlying lawsuit that exposed the insured to judgments.  The insured then sued its insurer for a declaratory judgment where the overriding issue was the insurer’s failure to cooperate defense. 


The Fourth District confirmed that in a failure to cooperate defense case, “the insurer must show a material failure to cooperate which substantially prejudiced the insurer.”  Barthelemy, supra, quoting Bankers Ins. Co. v. Macias, 475 So.2d 1216, 1218 (Fla. 1985).  This means the insurer must show: (1) the insured materially failed to cooperate and (2) this material failure substantially prejudiced the insurer


Please make sure to consult with counsel if your insurer raises this failure to cooperate defense or takes the position that you, as the insured, forfeited otherwise valid coverage under your insurance policy.


Please contact David Adelstein at or (954) 361-4720 if you have questions or would like more information regarding this article. You can follow David Adelstein on Twitter @DavidAdelstein1.



imagesThere is ostensibly a big difference between an insurance carrier DENYING coverage and simply asking for additional information, as permitted under the post-loss conditions of a property (first-party) insurance policy, right?  Typically, the answer is yes and there is a big difference.  If an insured refuses to comply with post-loss conditions under their insurance policy, they are shooting themselves in the foot (in most cases) by giving the insurer an out when it comes to coverage.  If an insurance carrier denies coverage, however, the insurance carrier cannot then require its insured to comply with post-loss conditions in the property insurance policy.


In a recent decision, Ifergane v. Citizens Property Ins. Corp., 42 Fla. L. Weekly D12198a (Fla. 3d DCA 2017), the appellate court held that there was a factual issue as to whether a letter sent by the insurer constituted a denial of coverage versus a request for additional information per the post-loss policy conditions in the property insurance policy.  This was a significant issue because the appellate court, in a prior appeal in the same case, found that the insured’s non-compliance with participating in an examination under oath would preclude coverage under the property insurance policy.  But, if it turns out that the insurer actually denied coverage first, then the insurer, as a matter of law, waived its right to enforce post-loss policy conditions in the property insurance policy such as requiring the insured to participate in an examination under oath.


Please contact David Adelstein at or (954) 361-4720 if you have questions or would like more information regarding this article. You can follow David Adelstein on Twitter @DavidAdelstein1.


images-1Insurance policies, particularly property insurance policies, contain post-loss obligations (that serve as conditions precedent to payment). This essentially means that when an insured submits a claim to an insurer, an insurer can demand obligations from the insured, and the insured is required to comply with these obligations. These obligations could be requiring the insured to submit a sworn proof of loss, allowing the insurer to inspect the damaged property, submitting all applicable documentation to the insurer, and allowing the insurer to take an examination under oath of the insured. An examination under oath is simply a pre-suit deposition where the insured answers the insurer’s questions under oath about the insurance claim with a court reporter memorializing the questions and answers. While these post-loss obligations can pose an inconvenience to the insured, they are obligations under the policy (the insurance contract) and refusing to comply with these obligations will allow the insurer to easily argue that the insured forfeited insurance coverage. Thus, an insured could be in a position where they are denied coverage for failure to comply with post-loss obligations in an insurance policy when, had they complied, there would have been coverage and payment.


To briefly illustrate, recently, in Edwards v. State Farm Florida Insurance Company, 37 Fla. L. Weekly D1269a (Fla. 3d DCA 2011), a homeowner, through a public adjuster, submitted a claim to its property insurer for reimbursement for the costs to fix roof damage from a hurricane. The insurer made numerous efforts to obtain documentation of expenses that the homeowner incurred to fix the roof, but was never provided this documentation. The insurer also scheduled an examination under oath of the insured, which was cancelled prior to the scheduled date. The insured providing documentation to reflect the amount of the claim and submitting to an examination under oath were post-loss conditions in the insurance policy. Because the insured did not comply with these policy conditions, the Third District Court of Appeal held that the insured forfeited coverage: “Failure to comply with a condition precedent to payment relieves the insurer of its duty to make payment.See Edwards.


Accordingly, an insured that submits a property insurance claim (or any insurance claim, for that matter) should ensure they are complying with post-loss policy conditions that are being requested by the insurer.


Please contact David Adelstein at or (954) 361-4720 if you have questions or would like more information regarding this article. You can follow David Adelstein on Twitter @DavidAdelstein1.