It is common for insurance policies to have a concealment or fraud provision that ultimately says the policy is void if the insured engaged in fraudulent conduct, intentionally concealed or misrepresented material facts, or made false material statements. In a nutshell, lying is bad, which includes intentionally withholding material facts.
An insured may make misrepresentations during the insurance application process. Or, an insured may make misrepresentations after a loss occurs, referred to as the post-loss context. The misrepresentations require different burdens of proof.
With respect to misrepresentations (fraud) during the insurance application process, “an insurer can later void a policy based on an insured’s false statement without a showing of intent to mislead.” Gracia v. Security First Ins. Co., 47 Fla.L.Weekly D1866a (Fla. 5th DCA 2022).
With respect to misrepresentations (fraud) during the post-loss context, there needs to be “proof of intent to mislead” by the insured. Gracia, supra.
By way of example, in Gracia, summary judgment was entered in favor of the property insurer on a property insurance roof damage claim initiated by the insured based on misrepresentations the insured made regarding the pre-loss condition of her property. Prior to the issuance of the policy, there was an inspection report that indicated the property had prior roof and ceiling damage. During the insured’s deposition, the insured testified that the roof was in good condition during this time. The carrier, upon learning of this inspection report, raised the concealment or fraud provision in the policy claiming coverage should be voided and moved for summary judgment on this basis. Specifically, the insurer argued that the insured made false statements in her deposition concerning the pre-loss condition of her home supporting her coverage being voided. Yet, the insured’s position was that the loss subject of her claim occurred during the policy period, not before. Nonetheless, the trial court agreed with the insurer and granted summary judgment. The appellate court reversed because the fraud in this post-loss context required the insurer to prove the insured’s INTENT. (The insurer needed to prove the element of intent.) “Simply put, factual questions relating to fraudulent intent or state of mind are generally not ripe for summary judgment determination.” Gracia, supra.
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