When it comes to giving your insurance carrier notice of claim, I am an advocate of providing that notice as soon as possible, i.e., prompt notice. The reason is to take away the carrier’s argument to deny coverage because you, as the insured, failed to provide it with prompt notice—the “untimely notice” defense. It doesn’t matter whether it is a first party property insurance claim or third-party liability policy claim, provide notice as soon as reasonably possible to take away that “untimely notice” defense.

The “untimely notice” defense was the issue in Benson v. Privilege Underwriters Reciprocal Exchange, 48 Fla.L.Weekly D1085a (Fla. 6th DCA 2023) dealing with a first party property insurance policy.  In this case, eighteen months after Hurricane Irma, the plaintiff noticed a smell and observed brown stains on walls and ceiling in his home. The plaintiff called roofing companies to inspect the damage and perform certain repairs.  However, the plaintiff still noticed the smell so he called a company to test and remediate mold. The plaintiff, then, contacted his property insurer with numerous claims relative to the leaks and damage. Although there was an initial property insurance payment made, the carrier ultimately denied coverage for subsequent claims stating that “the late notice of the claim and the prior repairs to the roof substantially prejudiced its ability to complete an inspection of [plaintiff’s] property to evaluate the claim.” Benson, supra.   The property insurance policy included the following notice language:

In the event of a loss for which coverage may be provided under this policy, you. . .must. . .[g]ive prompt notice to us or our agent, except that a claim, supplemental claim or reopened claim for loss or damage caused by hurricane or other windstorm must be given to us in accordance with the terms of this policy within three years after the hurricane first made landfall or a windstorm other than hurricane caused the covered damage. . .Any initial, supplemental or reopened claim for loss or damage caused by hurricane or other windstorm is barred if notice of the claim in accordance with this Paragraph is not provided.

The plaintiff filed a lawsuit and the property insurance carrier moved for summary judgment based on the “untimely notice” defense, which was granted by the trial court.  This was reversed on appeal.  The Sixth District Court of Appeal provides a good discussion of the “untimely notice” defense and its two-pronged test which can serve beneficial to an insured:

“Prompt” is not defined in the policy issued by [the property insurance carrier] to [the plaintiff]. “It is well settled, however, that ‘prompt’ and other comparable phrases, like ‘immediate’ and ‘as soon as practicable,’ do not require instantaneous notice.”  “Instead, Florida courts have interpreted these phrases to mean that notice should be provided with reasonable dispatch and within a reasonable time in view of all of the facts and circumstances of the particular case.”  “[T]he duty to provide notice arises when a reasonable person, viewing all available facts and information, would conclude that an award implicating the policy is likely.” 

The Supreme Court of Florida has set forth a two-step process to determine whether an insurance company may deny an insured’s claim on the ground that the insured failed to give the insurance company timely notice of the claim as required by an insurance policy.  “The first step in the analysis is to determine whether or not the notice was timely given.”  If the notice was timely given, then the analysis concludes at the first step.  If the notice was not timely, then the second step is to determine whether the insurance company suffered prejudice as a result of the untimely notice.  At the second stage of the analysis, prejudice to the insurer is presumed.  If notice was not timely, the burden of overcoming the presumption of prejudice is on the insured.  However, the insured may rebut the presumption of prejudice by showing that the insurer was not prejudiced by the lack of timely notice.  “If the insured is unable to overcome the presumption of prejudice, then the insurer will prevail on a defense of untimely notice.” 

Benson, supra (internal citations omitted).

A good thing for the plaintiff—the insured—is that whether prompt notice was provided is typically a question of fact for the trier of fact. Benson, supra. It is based on the “reasonable person” standard, underlined above. “In this case, there was disputed evidence regarding whether a reasonable person in [the plaintiff’s] position would have concluded that he had a claim under his insurance policy any time significantly earlier than when [the plaintiff] gave notice to [his property insurance carrier] of the claim.” Benson, supra.

While the two-pronged test can seem beneficial, the reality is this is all avoidable by providing notice as soon as you reasonably can. Because if untimely notice is given and prejudice is presumed, the burden in overcoming the presumption of prejudice will be on you, as the insured, in a completely avoidable scenario.

Please contact David Adelstein at or (954) 361-4720 if you have questions or would like more information regarding this article. You can follow David Adelstein on Twitter @DavidAdelstein1.



shutterstock_651871066I harp on notifying a liability insurer in writing once a claim is asserted against you.  As soon as possible.  I harp on this because as an insured you want to remove any doubt or argument that the insurer was prejudiced due to a lack of timely notice. 


In a recent opinion, Zurich American Insurance Co. v. European Tile and Floors, Inc., 2017 WL 2427172 (M.D.Fla. 2017), the insurer moved for summary judgment in a coverage action arguing that its insured failed to provide it timely written notice.  Specifically, the insurer argued that the insured violated the clause in the liability policy that states:


2. Duties in the Event of Occurrence, Offense, Claim or Suit

b. If a claim is made or “suit” is brought against any insured, you must:

1. Immediately record the specifics of the claim or “suit” and the date received; and

2. Notify us as soon as practicable.

You must see to it that we receive written notice of the claim or “suit” as soon as practicable. 

c.  You and any other insured must:

1. Immediately send us copies of any demands, notices, summonses or legal papers received in connection with the claim or “suit”;

2. Authorize us to obtain records and other information;

3. Cooperate with us in the investigation, settlement or defense of the claim or “suit”; and

4. Assist us, upon our request, in the enforcement of any right against any person or organization which may be liable to the insured because of injury or damage to which this insurance may also apply.


Here, the insured claimed it orally called the insurer about the nature of the suit and a representative told it that there would be no coverage for the lawsuit.   The insurer, however, claimed it has no record of such a call and only learned of the lawsuit after a judgment had already been entered against the insured.  Particularly, a seven-figure judgment was entered against the insured and the judgment creditor then sued the insurer which prompted the insurer to file a coverage lawsuit. 


The insurer argued that there should be no coverage because the insured violated the clause regarding being provided timely written notice of the lawsuit.  An insured can forfeit otherwise valid coverage by failing to provide timely notice to the prejudice of the insurer.


Under Florida law, if an insured’s notice is untimely, a presumption of prejudice arisesEuropean Tile and Floors, supra, at *5.  The insured can only prevail if it rebuts the presumption of prejudice by demonstrating with competent evidence that the insurer was not prejudiced by the untimely notice.   Id.   However, although the policy required written notice, this requirement can be waived when the insurer has actual notice of the claimId


In this case, the Middle District denied the insurer’s motion for summary judgment because there was a material fact dispute as to whether the insured provided notice of the lawsuit to the insurer—the insured claims it did so through an oral call which the insurer disputes.


The insurer also moved for summary judgment arguing the insured failed to cooperate with it.  An insurer may deny coverage for an insured’s failure to cooperate when “(1) the lack of cooperation was material, (2) the insurer exercised diligence and good faith in bringing about the cooperation of its insured and itself complied in good faith with the terms of the policy and (3) the lack of cooperation substantially prejudiced the insurer.”  European Tile and Floors, supra, at *6 quoting Mid-Continent Cas. Co. v. Basdeo, 477 Fed.Appx. 702, 706-07 (11th Cir. 2012).



Please contact David Adelstein at or (954) 361-4720 if you have questions or would like more information regarding this article. You can follow David Adelstein on Twitter @DavidAdelstein1.