In federal contracting, contractors are sometimes torn about submitting a request for equitable adjustment (known as an “REA” under 48 C.F.R. 252.243-7002) or submitting a formal claim under the Contract Disputes Act (41 U.S.C. s. 7103), the latter requiring a final decision by the contracting officer and starts the clock with respect to interest and preserving rights. It is also sometimes not easy for the contracting officer receiving an REA to determine whether the REA is actually a claim under the Contract Disputes Act requiring more immediate action. This recent take by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit hits the nail on the head:
We recognize that contracting officers will sometimes face the difficult challenge of determining whether a request for equitable adjustment is also a claim. Contractors must choose between submitting a claim—which starts the interest clock but requires the contracting officer to issue a final decision within 60 days—and submitting a mere request for equitable adjustment—which does not start the interest clock but gives the contractor more time to negotiate a settlement and possibly avoid hefty legal fees. The overlap between these two types of documents might create room for gamesmanship. For example, a contractor could submit a document that is a claim—starting the interest clock—but appears to be a mere request for equitable adjustment—causing the contracting officer to not issue a final decision within the 60-day deadline and allowing interest to accrue for months or years. But the government has tools to address this challenge: The contracting officer can communicate to the contractor that she is going to treat the document as a claim and issue a final decision within 60 days. Or the government can explicitly require the contractor to propose settlement terms and attempt to settle disputes before submitting a claim to the contracting officer for a final decision.
Zafer Construction Company v. U.S., 2022 WL 2793596, *5 (Fed.Cir. 2022).
Zafer Construction Company involved a design-build contractor on a federal project that submitted an REA for delays and changes caused by the government. Notably, both REAs and formal claims under the Contract Disputes Act (that are more than $100,000) require contractor certifications; however, the certification of a formal claim is a more robust certification than a certification of an REA. In Zafer, the design-build contractor certified its claim with the more robust certification per the Contract Disputes Act (41 U.S.C. s. 7103).
After many years of the contractor trying to negotiate a resolution to its REA, it asked the government to convert the REA to a formal claim. The contracting officer determined the formal claim was time-barred because much of it occurred more than six years before the contractor made its request to convert the REA into a claim.
The contractor sued the government in the Court of Federal Claims. Unfortunately, the Court of Federal Claims found that the claim was time-barred. Even though the contractor submitted an REA, an REA is not a formal claim under the Contract Disputes Act. The contractor appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.
A claim in federal contracting is no different than a claim in private contracting: “a written demand or written assertion by one of the contracting parties seeking, as a matter of right, the payment of money in a sum certain, the adjustment or interpretation of contract terms, or other relief arising under or relating to this contract.” Zafer, supra, at *1 quoting 48 C.F.R. 42-233-1(c).
Under the Contract Disputes Act, claims of more than $100,000 must include a specific “good faith” certification. See 41 U.S.C. s. 7103. Also, “a contractor must show that ‘what the contractor desires by its submissions is a final decision’ from the contracting officer determining whether the contractor is entitled to the claimed amount.” Zafer, supra, at *2 (citation omitted). The contractor’s request for a final decision can be explicit or implicit. Id. In other words, no magic words necessarily need to be used and “a request for equitable adjustment can constitute a claim.” Id.
The contractor argued its initial REA satisfied the requirements of a formal claim under the Contract Disputes Act because “the document at length discusses [contractor’s] request for money owed, showing that [contractor] intended for the contracting officer to make a decision regarding entitlement.” Zafer, supra, at *2. The government disagreed stating the contractor clearly intended to only negotiate its REA and not receive a final decision.
The United States Court of Appeals, however, found that the contractor’s subjective intent is of no moment. “The determination focuses on whether, objectively, the document’s content and the context surrounding the document’s submission put the contracting officer on notice that the document is a claim requesting a final decision.” Zafer, supra, at *2. Through this objective approach in reviewing the REA submission, the United States Court of Appeals held it implicitly requested a final decision and, therefore, satisfied the formal claim requirements under the Contract Disputes Act.
If you are a federal contractor, it is important to understand the difference between submitting an REA and submitting a formal claim to ensure your rights are preserved moving forward.
Please contact David Adelstein at email@example.com or (954) 361-4720 if you have questions or would like more information regarding this article. You can follow David Adelstein on Twitter @DavidAdelstein1.