Oftentimes an occurrence in a commercial general liability policy is defined as “an accident, including continuous or repeated exposure to substantially the same general harmful conditions.”   It is this occurrence that causes the bodily injury or property damage that may be covered by the policy.

An interesting non-construction case determined an occurrence under a commercial general liability policy occurred when the negligent act occurred irrespective of the date of discovery or the date the claim was discovered or asserted. See Certain Underwriters at Lloyd’s, London Subscribing to Policy No. J046137 v. Pierson, 46 Fla.L.Weekly D1288c (Fla. 4thDCA 2021). This is interesting because the appellate court did NOT apply a “trigger theory” to first determine the occurrence’s policy period.  The appellate court found it did not need to determine which “trigger theory” applied to determine the occurrence for the injury and relied on a cited case: “trigger theories are generally used in the context of deciding when damage occurred ‘in cases involving progressive damages, such as latent defects, toxic spills, and asbestosis’ because the time between the ‘injury-causing event (such as defective construction, a fuel leak, or exposure to asbestos), the injury itself, and the injury’s discovery or manifestation can be so far apart.”  Pierson, supra, citing and quoting Spartan Petroleum Co. v. Federated Mut. Ins. Co., 162 F.3d 805, 808 (4th Cir. 1998).

In Pierson, police officers were found civilly liable for civil rights violations that occurred twenty-years earlier when the officers physically and verbally forced a 15-year old boy to confess to a crime.  Many years later, DNA evidence proved the boy did not commit the crime he was forced to confess and was incarcerated for.   The officers sued the police department’s commercial general liability policy for failing to indemnify them in the civil lawsuit. The policy, however, was NOT in effect twenty years earlier when the officers verbally and physically forced the confession.  “Since it is undisputed that the Officers’ misconduct occurred twenty years prior to the execution of the policies, there can be no duty to indemnify in this case…. [T]he fact that [the boy] suffered the consequences of the Officers’ wrongful conduct throughout his incarceration, including while the subject policies were in effect, is irrelevant for purposes of determining whether the Insurer has a duty to indemnify. Likewise, the fact that [the boy] was exonerated while the 2009 policy was in effect is of no consequence.” Pierson, supra.

What does this holding mean?  It could likely mean outside of a latent defect scenario or a pollution liability issue–or property damage scenario–a “trigger theory” to determine when an occurrence occurred or is triggered is not applicable.  An occurrence will be deemed to occur when the accident causing the injury occurred, as defined by the policy.


Please contact David Adelstein at or (954) 361-4720 if you have questions or would like more information regarding this article. You can follow David Adelstein on Twitter @DavidAdelstein1.